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Research - Recent Research - Outdoor Recreation and Tourism


Advocating for Antarctic Wilderness: Short-term Visits and Human Values
Author: Patrick T. Maher In: Watson, Alan; Sproull, Janet; Dean, Liese, comps. 2007. Science and stewardship to protect and sustain wilderness values: eighth World Wilderness Congress symposium: September 30–October 6, 2005; Anchorage, AK.Proceedings RMRS-P-49. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station.


This research examined the nature of experience for visitors to the Ross Sea Region (RSR) of Antarctica. By monitoring visitors before, during, and after their onsite visit, using a mixed methodology approach, several interesting themes have arisen. In terms of advocacy, are we preaching to the converted? Is advocacy the awareness or the action? How do we adequately measure such aspects? Do we mean action or intent? Are we looking for action in an Antarctic sense or more generally? While presenting the visitor situation in the RSR and the context of this study, these questions are a few posed and discussed within related literature.

Full article available at :



Monitoring Injury in the New Zealand Adventure Tourism Sector: An Operator Survey.
Authors: Bentley, Tim A.Page, Stephen1Edwards, Joanna2,Journal of Travel Medicine; Nov/Dec2008, Vol. 15 Issue 6, p395-403, 9p


Client safety is a major risk management concern for the commercial adventure tourism sector in New Zealand. This study built on previous exploratory analyses of New Zealand adventure tourism safety, including industry surveys conducted by these authors in 1999 and 2003. The aims of the study were to provide a continuation of injury monitoring across the sector through data collected from self-reported injury incidence by industry operators and to compare findings with those from other primary and secondary research studies conducted by the authors.

Methods: A postal questionnaire was used to survey all identifiable New Zealand adventure tourism operators during 2006. The questionnaire asked respondents about their recorded client injury experience, perceptions of client injury risk factors, and safety management practices.

Results: Some 21 adventure tourism activities were represented among the responding sample ( n = 127), with most operations being very small in terms of staff numbers, although responding operators catered to nearly 1 million clients in total annually. Highest ranked risk factors for client injury included clients not following instructions; level of client skill, ability, and fitness; and changeable/unpredictable weather conditions. Highest client injury was reported for horse riding, ecotourism, and white water rafting sectors, although serious underreporting of minor injuries was evidenced across the sector. Slips, trips, and falls were the most frequently reported injury mechanism, while safety management measures were inconsistently applied across the sector. Conclusions. The industry should address reporting culture issues and safety management practices generally. Specifically, the industry should consider risk management that focuses on minor (eg, falls) as well as catastrophic events.



Tourism and Recreation in New Zealand’s Natural Environment:
A Bibliography and Research Synthesis
Prepared by Kay Booth and Michael Mackay
Prepared for the Ministry of Tourism March 2007


The scope of research about tourism and recreation in the natural environment is broadly defined to encapsulate publications that cover commercial and non-commercial recreation and tourism activities which are dependent upon the countryside, protected areas, the coast and waterways, marine areas, natural features and/or species.

The Bibliography provides a comprehensive catalogue of research publications relevant to this topic. The method employed to locate and select publications is described so that it may be replicated. The Research Synthesis analyses this collective of publications by research theme, explaining research in terms of its scope and type, areas of concentration, research source (researchers, scientific discipline and funders) and key research findings (where sufficient material exists). (Ministry of Tourism Website 21 July 2009) 

Full report available at:



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